对我国青年学者或学生来说,用英语写作的难点不是没有写作材料,不是不熟悉专业词汇,也不是没有打下良好的英语基础。用英语写论文难,是因为不太了解学术英语的语言特点。关于学术英语写作的语言技巧,我们已在第一部分作了较详细的介绍。此部分讨论学术论文写作的方法,包括学术论文写作中常用的句型结构,我们都在此作较详细介绍,以便读者模仿练习,将写作工作化难为易。

一般来说,一篇完整规范的学术论文由以下各部分构成:

Title(标题)

Abstract(摘要)

Keywords(关键词)

Table of contents(目录)

Nomenclature(术语表)

Introduction(引言)

Method(方法)

Results(结果)

Discussion(讨论)

Conclusion(结论)

Acknowledgement(致谢)

Reference(参考文献)

Appendix(附录)

其中 Title,Abstract,Introduction,Method,Result,Discussion,Conclusion,Reference 等八项内容是必不可少的(其他内容根据具体需要而定)。在这八项内容中,读者最多的是Title,Abstract和Introduction部分,读者会根据这些内容来决定是否阅读全文。也就是说,一篇研究论文赢得读者的多少,在很大程度上取决于Title,Abstract和Introduction 写得好坏。因此这三项内容将各分章详细加以讲述。

学术论文的正文一般包括Method,Result,Discussion三个部分。这三部分主要描述研究课题的具体内容、方法,研究过程中所使用的设备、仪器、条件,并如实公布有关数据和研究结果等。Conclusion是对全文内容或有关研究课题进行的总体性讨论。它具有严密的科学性和客观性,反映一个研究课题的价值,同时提出以后的研究方向。

标题的写法

论文标题是全文内容的缩影。读者通过标题便能够预测论文的主要内容和作者的意图,从而决定是否阅读全文。因此,为了使文章赢得有关领域里众多的读者,论文的标题必须用最精炼的语言恰如其分地体现全文的主题和核心。本章主要探讨英语学术论文标题的语言特点及写法。

6.1 标题的长度

标题 单词总数 名词数 介词数 形容词等

1) Fire Resistant Steels for Construction: Design, Properties and Microchemistry 9 6 1 2

2) Damping Capacity of Shape Memory Alloy 6 5 1 0

3) Microelectronic Assembly and Packaging Technology: Barriers and Needs 8 5 0 3

14) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: A Survey 6 4 0 2

5) Progress on Fuel Cell and Its Materials 7 4 1 2

6) Computer Simulation and Experimental Study on Cold Shut During Mold Filling 11 5 2 4

英语科技论文中,标题不宜过长,大多为8—12个单词左右。

英文论文引言的写作技巧

引言的写作技巧

学术论文中的引言(Introduction)是对全文内容和结构的总体勾画。引言尽管不像摘要那样有一定的篇幅限制和相对固定的格式,但在内容和结构模式上也有需要遵循的规律。本章首先介绍这些规律,然后探讨需要掌握的语言技巧。

8.1 引言的内容与结构布局

引言的主要任务是向读者勾勒出全文的基本内容和轮廓。它可以包括以下五项内容中的全部或其中几项:

介绍某研究领域的背景、意义、发展状况、目前的水平等;

对相关领域的文献进行回顾和综述,包括前人的研究成果,已经解决的问题,并适当加以评价或比较;

指出前人尚未解决的问题,留下的技术空白,也可以提出新问题、解决这些新问题的新方法、新思路,从而引出自己研究课题的动机与意义;

说明自己研究课题的目的;

概括论文的主要内容,或勾勒其大体轮廓。

如何合理安排以上这些内容,将它们有条有理地给读者描绘清楚,并非容易之事。经验告诉我们,引言其实是全文最难写的—部分。这是因为作者对有关学科领域的熟悉程度,作者的知识是渊博、还是贫乏,研究的意义何在、价值如何等问题,都在引言的字里行间得以充分体现。

我们可以将引言的内容分为三到四个层次来安排(如图8.1所示)。第一层由研究背景、意义、发展状况等内容组成,其中还包括某一研究领域的文献综述;第二层提出目前尚未解决的问题或急需解决的问题,从而引出自己的研究动机与意义;第三层说明自己研究的具体目的与内容;最后是引言的结尾,可以介绍一下论文的组成部分。

第一层:1) Introducing the general research area including its background, importance, and present level of development……………………………………………………………

2) Reviewing previous research in this area……………………………………………………………………

第二层: Indicating the problem that has not been solved by previous research, raising a relevant question ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

第三层:Specifying the purpose of your research………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

第四层:1) Announcing your major findings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2) Outlining the contents of your paper …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

图8.1 引言的结构布局之一

值得注意的是,引言中各个层次所占的篇幅可以有很大差别。这一点与摘要大不一样,摘要中的目的、方法、结果、结论四项内容各自所占的篇幅大体比例一样(见 7.2节)。而在引言中,第一个层次往往占去大部分篇幅。对研究背景和目前的研究状况进行较为详细的介绍。研究目的可能会比较简短。

引言与摘要还有一点不同的是,摘要中必须把主要研究结果列出,而在引言中(如果摘要与正文一同登出)结果则可以省略不写,这是因为正文中专门有一节写结果(results),不必在引言中重复。

下面这段引言的例子摘自一篇关于混合电动汽车的研究论文,大部分篇幅介绍研究背景。

例1

A Hybrid Internal Combustion Engine/Battery Electric Passenger Car for Petroleum Displacement I. Forster and J. R. Bumby INTRODUCTION [1] The finite nature of the world’s oil resources and the general concern about automobile emissions have prompted the adoption of energy conservation policies and emphasized the need to transfer energy demand from oil to other sources of energy, such as natural gas, coal and nuclear. [2] A transfer of energy from oil to electricity can be achieved to a limited extent in the road trans- port sector by the increased use of electric vehicle. However, such vehicles are limited in range due to the amount Of energy that can he realistically stored on-board the vehicle without affecting payload. As a consequence of this, electric vehicles must he used in situations where daily usage is well defined, for example, in urban delivery duty. Indeed, it has been in such vehicles as the urban milk delivery vehicles that electric traction drives have been traditionally applied with a great deal of success. Currently the demand is for urban electric vehicles to he developed with greater traffic compatibility in terms of speed and range. 分析:第一层(第1—5段):介绍混合电动汽车的研究背景、意义、目前的发展水平,需要解决的问题等。第1段:指出混合电动汽车的研究背景。世界石油资源的有限性及人们对汽车排放问题的广泛关注使得能源转换问题尤为重要。第2段:使用电动汽车能够从某种程度上实现能源转换。但问题是电动汽车的续驶里程比内燃机车短。所以目前要解决的问题是提高电动汽车的速度和续驶里程。

[3] Although urban delivery vehicle applications will help to reduce the dependence of the road transport sector on petroleum-based fuels, the major part of this market requires vehicles that are not limited in range and have a performance compatible with internal combustion, i.e. engine vehicles. The use of advanced traction battery technology to overcome the range limitation of electric vehicles is one possible solution. However, this would still result in a vehicle limited in range and may in itself create additional problems. For example, due to the much greater on- board stored energy, the charging time required will be greater than at present. [4] The range limitations of the pure electric vehicle can be overcome by using a hybrid i.c. engine/electric drive which incorporates both an i.c. engine and an electric traction system. Al- though such a vehicle can be designed to meet a number of objectives, it has been argued that a vehicle which seeks to remove the range limitation of the electric vehicle while substituting a substantial amount of petroleum fuel by electrical energy is the vehicle most worth pursuing. With the emphasis of the vehicle design on the electric drive train, the intention may be to operate in an all-electric mode under urban conditions and to use the i.c. engine for long-distance motorway driving. The hybrid mode could then he used for extending urban range and/or improving vehicle accelerative performance on accelerator kick-down.[5] The concept of a hybrid electric vehicle capable of substituting petroleum fuel is’ not new, 第3段:市场要求电动汽车的续驶里程及工作性能与内燃机汽车媲美,但是,即使先进电池可以提高电动汽车的续驶里程,但还会有一些问题不能解决。 第4段:续驶里程可以通过使用混合电动汽车来提高。混合电动汽车上既装有内燃机,又装有电动驱动系统,在必要时使用其中一种系统。第5段:回顾并评述前人关于混合电动汽车

Bosch and Volkswagen having built vehicles in the 1970s. More recently, the advent of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Programme in the United States of America initiated the design and construction of a Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) with the principal aim of substituting petroleum fuel by ‘ wall plug’ electricity. [6] As part of the NTHV programme, a large number of conceptual studies were conducted but on vehicles aimed at the American passenger car market. In this paper optimization studies were conducted, but now on a vehicle suitable for the European medium-sized passenger car market. Such optimization studies are important as, with two sources of traction power available, the way in which they are controlled, and their relative sizing, is fundamental to the way the vehicle performs.[7] Before examining in detail the optimum control strategy for the drive train, Section 2 defines the hybrid arrangement under study. A description of the optimization process using an appro

摘要的写作技巧

英文摘要(Abstract)的写作应用很广。不仅参加国际学术会议、向国际学术刊物投稿要写摘要,国内级别较高的学术期刊也要求附上英文摘要。学位论文更是如此。论文摘要是全文的精华,是对一项科学研究工作的总结,对研究目的、方法和研究结果的概括。本章主要介绍摘要的组成部分、写作方法、各部分的语言特点以及典型句型。

1. 摘要的种类与特点

摘要主要有以下四种。

第一种是随同论文一起在学术刊物上发表的摘要。这种摘要置于主体部分之前,目的是让读者首先了解一下论文的内容,以便决定是否阅读全文。一般来说,这种摘要在全文完成之后写。字数限制在100~150字之间。内容包括研究目的、研究方法、研究结果和主要结论。

第二种是学术会议论文摘要。会议论文摘要往往在会议召开之前几个月撰写,目的是交给会议论文评审委员会评阅,从而决定是否能够录用。所以,比第一种略为详细,长度在200—300字之间。会议论文摘要的开头有必要简单介绍一下研究课题的意义、目的、宗旨等。如果在写摘要时,研究工作尚未完成,全部研究结果还未得到,那么,应在方法、目的、宗旨、假设等方面多花笔墨。

第三种为学位论文摘要。学士、硕士和博士论文摘要一般都要求用中、英文两种语言写。学位论文摘要一般在400字左右,根据需要可以分为几个段落。内容一般包括研究背景、意义、主旨和目的;基本理论依据,基本假设;研究方法;研究结果;主要创新点;简短讨论。不同级别的学位论文摘要,要突出不同程度的创新之处,指出有何新的观点、见解或解决问题的新方法。

第四种是脱离原文而独立发表的摘要。这种摘要更应该具有独立性、自含性、完整性。读者无需阅读全文,便可以了解全文的主要内容。

以上四种摘要具有许多共性。无论哪种摘要,内容一般都包括:

(1)目的(objectives,purposes):包括研究背景、范围、内容、要解决的问题及解决这一问题的重要性和意义。

(2)方法(methods and materials):包括材料、手段和过程。

(3)结果与简短讨论(results and discussions):包括数据与分析。

(4)结论(conclusions):主要结论,研究的价值和意义等。

无论哪种摘要,语言特点和文体风格也都相同。首先必须符合格式规范。第二,语言必须规范通顺,准确得体,用词要确切、恰如其分,而且要避免非通用的符号、缩略语、生偏词。另外,摘要的语气要客观,不要作出言过其实的结论。

下面从内容、结构布局和语言特点三方面着手,讨论摘要的写作方法和技巧。

2. 摘要的内容与结构

一般来说,摘要必须包括研究目的,研究方法,研究结果,主要结论等内容。也就是说,摘要必须回答“研究什么”、“怎么研究”、“得到了什么结果”、“结果说明了什么”等问题。

2.1 学术期刊论文摘要

这种摘要随同全文一起发表,简短精炼是其主要特点。只需简明扼要地将研究目的、方法、结果和结论分别用1~2句话加以概括即可(如图所示)。至于研究背景或宗旨应在论文的Introduction部分较详细介绍,不必在摘要里介绍。

Title

Author(s), address

Objectives,purpose,hypotheses ……………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Methods,materials,procedures ………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………..

Results,data,observations,discussion …………………………………….…………………………………………………………………… Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

期刊论文摘要结构布局

例1.

DOES ALUMINUM ENTER THE LIQUID OONTAINED

IN POP CANS AND ALUMINUM COOKWARE?

Daniel T. Moss

Campbell, 353 North King St., Xenia OH 45385

Objective: 1This investigation was performed to see if the aluminum in pop cans (易拉罐)and aluminum cookware enters the liquid they contain. It was hypothesized that aluminum does enter the liquids in aluminum cans and cookware. Methods and Materials: This experiment was performed by testing seven different types of carbonated beverages and water boiled in aluminum cookware for three hours. Every hour a sample was removed for testing. The cookware consisted of a new and old aluminum pot. The colorimetric method was used to determine the concentration of aluminum. Results: The results showed that aluminum was present in carbonated beverages and in the water boiled in the cookware. Conclusions: It was concluded that aluminum existed in carbonated beverages and substances cooked in aluminum cookware, and that the concentration of aluminum increased with time. (126 words)

(本章选文中黑体部分为编者注。)

分析:

本摘要共8句话,126个词。第1句话指出了研究目的:装在易拉罐或铝制炊具中的液体是否含有铝。第2句是假设,铝可能真的会进人装在铝制罐子或炊具中的液体之中。第3~6句是实验材料、时间与方法。第7句是实验结果。第8句是结论:存放于铝制容器或炊具中的液体内含有铝,而且存放的时间越长,铝含量越高。

例1中的主要句型结构如下:

This investigation was performed to see 表示研究目的

It was hypothesized that 表示假设

This experiment was performed by testing 表示实验过程和方法

The colorimetric method was used to determine 表示测量方法

The results showed that 表示实验结果

It was concluded that 表示结论

例2

FACTORS INVOLVED IN POAG:

CAROTENOID INTAKE, EYE COLOR, ANDGIRTH MEASUREMENTS

C. A. Greenell and D. M. Spillman

Department of Physical Education, Health and Sports Studies,

Phillops Hall, Miami University, Oxford Oh 45056

Objective: This study investigates possible effects of high intake of carotenoids(类胡罗卜素), eye color, and girth measurements(眼睛大小)on primary open angle glaucoma (POAG 青光眼). Methods and Materials: Researchers designed a questionnaire that inquired about diet and family and personal health history. This questionnaire was administered to 250 individuals suffering from glaucoma. Results and Discussion: The dietary data suggested a possible correlation between low habitual intake of vitamin A, E, and C and higher risk of POAG. In addition, the number of persons suffering from POAG with blue eye color was significantly higher than those with brown or green. Finally, a possible association was suggested concerning girth measurements: those persons with proportionately larger than normal girth measurements may be more likely to suffer from POAG. (117 words)

分析:·

本摘要只有6句话,117个词。第1句话明确指出研究目的:说明类胡萝卜素的摄人量大、眼睛颜色及眼睛大小与青光眼的关系。第2—3句是研究方法与研究对象。方法是通过调查问卷,研究对象是250名青光眼患者。第4~6句话每句话是调查结果:

1) 维生素A、E、C摄人量低可能与青光眼发病率高有关系;

2) 蓝眼睛青光眼患者的比例远远超过棕色眼睛或绿色眼睛青光眼患者;

3) 眼睛过大的人患青光眼的可能性更大。

本摘要中的主要句型结构:

This study investigates…表示研究内容或目的

Researchers designed a questionnaire…表示研究方法

This questionnaire was administered to…表示研究对象

The dietary data suggests that…表示调查数据与结果

A possible association has been suggested…表示调查结果

2.2 学术会议论文摘要

学术会议论文摘要写得好坏,直接关系到论文是否被录用。摘要起到说服会议论文评审委员会的作用。因此,摘要应该首先简要说明研究背景、内容、范围、价值与意义。在研究方法上也可以多花一点笔墨。会议论文摘要一般在200~250词之间。其结构布局如图2所示。

Title

Author(s), address

Background, 15revious studies, present situation, problems that need to be

solved:

正文的写作技巧

学术论文的主体部分由引言、正文和结论构成。正文部分包括方法、结果与讨论。由于学术论文所涉及的学科、范围广泛,即使在同一学科领域内,由于选题、研究方法、工作进程不同,正文部分的内容也不尽相同,写作方法也就不存在统一的规定或一成不变的模式。所以,本章只着重介绍写正文部分时一些较为典型的语言现象,希望读者能够从中寻求到一般规律。

7.1 描述研究方法

研究方法(Method)部分主要内容包括:

(1)研究工作具备的基本前提或条件,如实验材料、实验场所、设备器材等。

(2)采样、实验、获取数据,并对数据进行技术处理的方法与过程。

(3)理论分析,包括理论依据、基本原理、公式推导、数理模型等。

采样与实验过程,要根据先后顺序或步骤进行描述。例1选自描述对千屈莱这种植物生长的采样与实验过程。

例l

Materials and Methods

[1] In August 1994,entire purple loosestrife(千屈莱)plants were harvested from three habitats(生长环境):1) an upland old field in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area in north-eastern Ohio (n=5);2) a shallow ditch along Route 261 in Kent, OH (n = 10); and 3) the western shoreline of East Twin Lake, Portage County, OH (n = 6). These sites represent habitats which are never inundated(淹没) with water, are periodically inundated, or have saturated(浸透) soils, respectively. [2]Shoot sections (嫩枝条)of 5, 10, and 15 cm lengths were cut from these plants and positioned in flats(平地) containing a soil mixture of perlite (珍珠岩), vermiculite ( 蛭岩), and peatmoss (苔泥炭) ( 1:1:1). The flats were maintained in the Department of Biological Sciences’ greenhouse where they experienced ambient meteorological conditions except for 6 seconds of mist every 3. 5 minutes between 8: 00 and 20: 00 hours daily. Shoot sections and attached leaves were examined at weekly intervals for pigment (色质) and tissue changes as well as for development of lateral shoots. After 26~28 days the sections were rinsed to remove adherent material and dried at room temperature (approximately 22℃ ) for a week. The adventitious roots from each section were removed with needle-nose forceps, dried at 60℃ for 24 hours, and then weighed to determine dry biomass. One lake site 5-cm section was lost during processing.

分析:

此部分严格按照时间顺序描述实验过程。第1段描述采样的时间、试样的来源与数量。名叫“千屈莱”的试样来自三个地带,分别代表三种生长环境。试样的数量分别是5、10、6棵。第2段首先描述实验基地,及其环境与条件。然后客观描述实验的详细过程与步骤。描述某一研究方法时,要考虑读者是否了解此方法。如果不了解,描述便需要详细一些。这一点在农、林、医学、教育、社会科学、环境科学等领域尤为突出。例2中的选段描述的是一个关于生活用水和农业用水质量”函授培训班的教学与评估方法。由于教学过程与评估方法的特殊性,读者事先不可能对它有详细了解,所以文中要描述得清楚、详细一些。

例2

Correspondence Teaching Methods

[1] The program evaluated in this research was a correspondence training course entitled “Quality Water for Home and Farm” developed for county extension agents( 函授部学员). The program began with a one-day meeting followed by seven monthly written lessons. The program concluded with another one-day meeting. The one lesson-per-month format was selected to allow agents to complete the assignments as part of their regular work schedule.

[2] The program followed a simple model for identifying water quality problems and potential solutions.

Step 1: Identify the beneficial uses of water (such as for drinking water, livestock water, irrigation, recreation).

Step 2: Test the water to ensure that it is of sufficient quality for the beneficial use.

Step 3: If water quality problems are identified, examine correction options in four categories to determine which is most affordable and appropriate. The categories are:

1. Protect the supply from the contaminant;

2. Find and eliminate the contaminant source;

3. Treat the water to remove the contaminant;

4. Find and develop a new water supply.

[3] Steps 1 and 2 on water testing were presented to participants in the initial six-hour meeting. The first correspondence lesson also covered water testing. The six remaining correspondence lessons addressed each of the options for solving water quality problems. Water treatment was divided into three lessons; disinfection, treatment of nuisance waters, and removals of toxins. The final lesson and final meeting covered the development of new water supplies. Each written lesson contained reading material, references, teaching materials, questions, calculations, and exercises.

[4]Agents taking the water quality correspondence training were required to return assignments each month to remain enrolled in the program. Letters of encouragement were sent to delinquents. At the end of the program, extension agents who completed the program received certificates. A list of graduates was distributed to extension administrators, faculty, and staff.

Evaluation Methods

[5]The participants were tested to evaluate the extent of learning. Simple tests were constructed of true/false, multiple choice, and fill-in-the-blank questions to address the important aspects of the program using methods described by Ary et al. (1990). A written pretest was administered at the beginning of the first meeting. A post test of similar but different questions was administered at the end of the closing meeting. The purpose of the pretest was to measure the previous knowledge of the participants. The participants may also learn the subject matter from the pretest, become familiar with the testing approach and therefore be less anxious when taking the post test.

[6] The post tests were used to measure the increased knowledge and skills of the participants following the inservice. The post tests also served to reinforce the most important aspects of the training and helped illustrate to the participants and instructor where additional study may be required.

[7] Acquisition of new skills was evaluated using practicum exercises and demonstrations. Following instruction in how to interpret a test report each participant was given a water test report and asked to write their interpretation. After being taught how to collect a water sample, five agents were selected at random and asked to collect a water sample for the instructor.

[8] The teaching activity of the agents was measured through their monthly assignment reports.

分析:

例2比较详细地描述一个函授培训班的管理、教学与评估方法。第1~4段为管理与教学方法。篇章的布局模式基本上是先后顺序与步骤式,即按照培训班的三个主要阶段的先后顺序来安排文章的结构。

第5~8段介绍培训班学习效果的评估方法。共采用三种方法进行评估。第5~6段介绍对主要教学内容的整体评估方法,也就是将pretest(培训前测试)与posttest(培训后测试)相结合的方法。第7段和第8段分别介绍教学过程中单项技能评估方法。

7.1.1 描述方法时的语言特点

采用被动语态的过去式是描述实验方法与过程时最典型的句子结构特点。这并不是科技英语写作中的什么规定或者原则,而是因为在描述实验过程或方法时,句子中的主题或中心是实验材料、场地和方法本身,表达“做了什么”、“怎么做的”之意,而不是表达“谁做了什么”。因此,在描述方法时,常将实验材料或受试者作为主语,谓语动词自然要用被动语态。我们可以利用例1和例2中的句子加以说明。

结论、致谢、参考文献

8.1 如何写结论

学术文章的结论部分(Conclusion)是作者对有关研究课题进行的总体性讨论。结论必须具有严密的科学性和客观性,它反映本研究课题的价值,同时对以后的研究具有指导意义。如果文章中的Discussion一节已对研究结果进行了全面的分析、综合、归纳、推理和总结,那么Conclusion则可以比较简短。

从某种意义上说,Conclusion与Introduction遥相呼应,因为Introduction部分介绍了本课题的研究目的,那么Conclusion要告诉读者这些目的是否达到,在研究中做了哪些工作,取得了什么结果,这些结果说明了什么问题,有何价值和意义,研究过程中存在或发现了哪些问题,原因是什么,建议如何解决等。

8.1.1 结论部分的内容与结构布局

一般来说,结论部分的具体内容及其组织框架如下。

(1) 概括说明本课题的研究内容、结果及其意义与价值。(2) 比较具体地说明本研究证明了什么假设或理论,得出了什么结论,研究结果有何实用价值,有何创造性成果或见解,解决了什么实际问题,有何应用前景等。(3) 与他人的相关研究进行比较。(4) 本课题的局限性、不足之处,还有哪些尚待解决的问题。

(5)展望前景,或指出进一步研究的方向。在上面五项内容中,第一、二项是必不可少的。第三、四、五项内容可以根据需要而定。

例1 Conclusion 1Two factors to influence mold filling (铸件充型) have been studied. one is the pouring temperature (浇铸温度) and the other is the molding method (by machine or by hand). 2The filling length (充型长度) is proportional to the pouring temperature. 3The influence of different molding methods on mold filling is more complicated. 4The filling length in the hand-made mold is 1.5 times as long as the one in the machine-made mold due to different thermal conductivity ( 热导性能). 5Venting (出气孔) has little influence. 6The simulated results are in good agreement with the experiments.

分析:第1句概括研究内容:研究影响铸件充型的两个因素,即浇铸温度与铸型方法。第2~5句总结通过研究而得出的结论,即上述两个因素是如何影响铸件充型的。其中第2句说明第一个因素(浇铸温度)与充型长度的关系是成比例的。第3句说明第二个因素(铸型方法)的影响比较复杂。第4句说明手工铸型与机器铸型方法对长度的不同影响。第5句说明出气孔的影响小。第6句是对研究结果的总结性评价。

例2 Conclusions 1Through the example of a 60-storey building design, it has been demonstrated that a simplified approach can be used to assess the ultimate lateral shear strength (整体极限抗剪能力) of a structure. 2The proposed simplified design approach in the typical building seismic design process (抗震设计过程) would be valuable. 3From the findings of the simplified design, new building can be fine tuned for a better allocation of material. 4 In existing buildings, the approach can be used to identify locations of potential undercapacity (载荷能力弱的部分). 5Although the proposed approach is based on solid capacity design concepts, it involves substantial implifications. 6To confirm the results of this simplified approach, a more complete analysis of the core-frame system is suggested for further studies.

分析:例2选自一篇建筑物整体极限抗剪能力的测算方法的论文。首先概括了文章的内容,而且指出了本研究的局限性,并为下一步研究工作提出了建议。选段中的第1句概括研究课题内容,即提出了一个整体极限抗剪能力测算的简便方法。第2~4句肯定了这一设计方法的价值和应用前景。分别说明此方法有利于建筑物的抗震设计、建筑材料的合理分配,也有利于查出建筑物内荷载能力弱的部分。第5句是这一方法的局限性:尽管此方法以负载能力理论为依据,但做了大量的简化工作。因此第6句建议下一步研究方向,以证明文中所提出的方法的可靠性。

例31Overall, our study has revealed a variety of patterns at the community and population levels, none of which seem to indicate obvious decline in southeastern Ohio’s oak-hickory (橡树与山核桃科树木) forests. 2Clearly, sporadic insect outbreaks, pathogens (病菌), and climatic events have caused excessive mortality of certain species in certain stands (树林). 3Some stands exhibited mortality as high as 40%. 4However, an average of 20% dead stems in a stand appears to be reasonable without inferring excessive mortality or decline. 5Likewise, certain species were in an obvious state of decline, but these generally had a clear pathogenic explanation. 6Changes occurring due to insects and pathogens may be a natural and necessary phenomenon (Castello et al. 1995). 7Evaluation of decline symptoms in smaller size classes might provide additional useful information to be used in understanding the oak regeneration problem.

分析:例3摘自一篇关于俄亥俄东南部地区橡树与山核桃科树木生长状况的研究论文。第1句:对研究内容的总体概括。第2~5句:总结研究结果,即某些树种死亡的原因是害虫、病菌和气候。其中第2句概括这些原因,第3~5句是具体结果及原因:有些林区的树木死亡率为40%,但是20%属于正常现象;有些树种死亡现象明显,原因是病菌的侵害。第6句:引用他人的研究结果和观点,以解释上述结果。害虫和病菌的侵袭所造成的树木死亡是一种自然和必然的现象。第7句:指出以后的研究方向。下面一则结论摘自一篇关于学校科技活动项目是否有助于达到科学教育目标的研究论文。

例41Science projects appear to be an important part of science education. 2Teachers feel that student science projects are meeting the educational goals for science. 3Experience through modeling the necessary skills in the classroom has the strongest relationship to science projects meeting these goals. 4Participation in a science fair beyond the local level, and supportive help from parents and other adults may also improve the effectiveness of student science projects. 5By utilizing these methods, more teachers may be able to address the goals of the National Science Teachers Association.

分析:第1—2句为总体结论:学校的科技活动是科技教育中的一个重要组成部分。教师认为,学生的科技活动有助于实现科技教育目标。第3~4句为两条具体结论:第一条结论是:课堂上的模拟操作活动经验与实现科技教育的目标有密切关系。第二条结论是:参加科技博览会、父母或其他成人的支持可以提高学生科技活动的效果。第5句展望未来趋势。从上述例子可以看出,通过一项研究工作,可能会得出几条结论,这些结论的主次轻重可以从字里行间表现出来。如例4中的第3句话通过使用…has the strongest relationship…点出了最主要的结论,而在第4句话中运用…also…这个词,来表示递进关系,说明这句话陈述的内容是研究结论之二。有时为了清楚醒目,可以将结论列成几条,例5和例6都是如此。

例5Conclusions(1) A systematic crashworthiness ( 碰撞性能) development of a lightweight electrical vehicle with aluminum front structure and composite (复合材料) passenger compartment is successfully completed and discussed here. Nonlinear finite element analysis (非线性有限元分析法) is used extensively to design and optimize the aluminum structure. (2) Implementation of damage mechanics models in the nonlinear crash codes reliably predict the post-yield behavior of aluminum components, and therefore, the codes can be successfully used for crashworthiness development of metallic structures with limited ductility (韧性有限的金属结构).(3) Even though crash analysis of composite members is not possible at this time, current modeling technology provides sufficient information about their design.(4) Development of material models in crash analysis codes to simulate the crash behavior of composite components can help to develop composite front-end structures for crashworthiness performance.

例6 Conclusions In this paper, a new prototype model of micropump(微小医用泵) using ICPF actuator (驱动控制器) is proposed.

总之,各位同学在英国写论文,需要按照实际论文的要求,仔细把握写作大纲,按照要求来写作。

主要注意三点

1. 是文章结构是否合理

2. 文章写作思路是否清晰。

3. 引用reference是否得体!

不在乎字数多少,也不在乎是否能够写的特别专业,主要给老师看的,所以要显示出你对课程的理解,领域的了解。平时多加思考,多看文章,看别人怎么写的。很重要。

 

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