论文写作-MLA格式

  1. MLA 文献引用格式的基本描述:文学类论文通常使用MLA(Modern Language Association)格式。作者在正文中用括号夹注的形式注明参考文献的简要出处,即(作者姓氏+页码)。

  Ancient writers attributed the invention of the monochord to Pythagoras, who lived in the sixth century BC (Marcuse 197).

  而在论文末尾的参考文献部分(按作者姓氏的字母顺序排列),则可根据作者姓氏很容易的找出该引用文献的详细信息。包括作者信息,书名信息,和出版信息(出版地:出版社,出版年)三个部分。三个部分之间用“.”分开。

  Marcuse, Sibyl. A Survey of Musical Instruments. New York: Harper, 1975.

  2. 引语(Quotations)的格式— 用方括号(square brackets“[ ]”)和省略号(ellipses“…”)标明更动原文的地方。

  — 短于三行的一句或者短于一句的引语应该写入正文,并且用双引号标明。

  — 双引号表示直接引语,单引号只用来标注引语中的引语。

  — 引语不得使用斜体或粗体来表示(书名除外)。

  在任何情况下(即使引语仅仅只有一个单词):

  — 句末、小句末的句号和逗号都必须放在引号之内(无论单引号还是双引号),

  — 冒号(“:”)和分号(“;”)都必须放在引号之外,

  — 引文是疑问句则问号应放在引号之内,否则问号(“?”)应放在引号之外。

  — 三行或以上的引语作为独立的引语段(block quotation)。

  — 引语段可以用单倍行距,但其首行和末行应与正文空1.5行。

  — 引语段左右两边均应较正文缩进5格或1个制表符(TAB)的距离。

  — 如果引语段原为一自然段,则其首行应进一步缩进4至5格或1个制表符的距离。

  — 引语段的段首和段尾不得使用引号。

  — 引语段的字体必须与正文相同。

  3.夹注(Parenthetical Citation)的格式:

  引文出处使用括号夹注的方法(一般不使用脚注或者尾注)。正文中,括号夹注(作者姓氏+页码)放在句末标点以内,但不得放在引文的引号以内。引语段(block quotation)的括号夹注不属于单句,因而不得将其放在句末的标点以内。直接引语都必须标明页码,以便读者查找。

  3.1 引用整篇文献的观点引用整篇文献(即全书或全文)观点时一般不用标注页码,有两种情况,

  — 一种是作者的姓氏在正文中没有出现,如:

  Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor).

  — 另一种情况是作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出现,按MLA的规范不需要使用括号夹注,

  如:

  Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.

  在英文撰写的论文中引用中文著作或者期刊,括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏,不得使用汉字,如:

  (Fang, 12)

  3.2. 引用文献中具体观点或文字引用文献中某一具体观点或文字时必须注明该观点或者该段文字出现的页码,没有页码是文献引用不规范的表现。若作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出现,则不需要在括号夹注中重复。

  According to Marcuse, Ancient writers attributed the invention of the monochord to Pythagoras, who lived in the sixth century BC (197).

  3.2.1 引用多位作者写作的同一文献二至三位作者:

  Among intentional spoonerisms, the “punlike metathesis of distinctive features may serve to weld together words etymologically unrelated but close in their sound and meaning” (Jakobson and Waugh 304).

  (如果有三位作者,在括号夹注中应用逗号分隔他们的姓氏,如:(Alton, Davies, and Rice 56)。)

  The study was extended for two years, and only after results were reviewed by an independent panel did the researchers publish their findings (Blaine et al. 35).

  3.2.2 引用同样姓氏的不同作者假若两个或两个以上的作者有同样的姓氏,则括号夹注中应同时使用他们名字的首字母,如:

  Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).

  引用中文著作或期刊时同姓作者的情况较多,应在括号夹注中使用他们名字的首字母加以区分,如:

  (S.R. Wang 26) (J.X. Wang 30)

  3. 3 引用团体作者(corporate author)引用团体作者的作品,括号夹注中应使用团体的名称,如:

  It was apparent that the American health care system needed “to be fixed and perhaps radically modified” (Public Agenda Foundation 4).

  3.4 引用无作者文献引用无作者文献,如果文献标题没有出现在正文里,则括号夹注中应使用该标题或者(如果标题过长的话)使用该标题中的关键词组,如:

  An anonymous Wordsworth critic once argued that his poems were too emotional (“Wordsworth Is A Loser” 100).

  在使用关键词组时应该选择标题开始部分的词组。

  无论是MLA还是APA的规范,独立出版物的标题或者标题中的关键词组用斜体标出,出版物内含的作品的名称以及未出版的作品(讲演、论文等)的标题或者标题中的关键词组则用引号标出。

  3.5 引用书信、谈话中的观点或文字书信和谈话(含电子邮件、访谈、电话等)无法在正文后面的参考文献中列出,但应该在正文中使用括号夹注的方法注明出处。例如:

  Jesse Moore (telephone conversation, May 12, 1989) admitted the need for an in-depth analysis of the otherness expressed in the work.

  3.6 引用同一作者的多篇文献按MLA规范,引用同一作者的多篇文献时,在括号夹注中应加入文献标题中的关键词组,如:

  Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (“Hand-Eye Development” 17).

  或者

  Computers are not useful tools for small children (Lightenor, “Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (Lightenor, “Hand-Eye Development” 17).

  或者

  Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children, though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development (“Too Soon” 38 and “Hand-Eye Development” 17).

  3.7 同时引用不同作者的多篇文献括号夹注可以包括不同作者的多篇文献,文献按作者姓氏的字母顺序排列(注意分号的使用),如:

  The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams 30).

  在MLA的规范中,如果不同作者的多篇文献过于冗长,则不用括号夹注,而使用脚注(见4)。

  3.8 引用非直接文献(indirect source)论文应尽可能避免使用非直接文献(即二级文献secondary source),但在无法找到直接文献(即一级文献primary source)的情况下,引文可以从非直接文献中析出,例如:

  Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an “extraordinary man” (qtd. in Boswell 2: 450).

  (注意:“qtd. in”中的字母“i”不得大写。)

  引用非直接文献以后,在正文后参考文献著录中只需列入该非直接文献的条目(即上述实例中的“Boswell”和“Murzynski & Degelman, 1996”)。

  3.9 引用文学作品和经典文献按MLA的规范,有几种情况括号夹注内不标页码。

  在引用剧本时应标出引文的幕、场、行,如:

  In his famous advice to players, Shakespeare’s Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, “whose end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as ‘twere, the mirror up to nature” (3.2.21-23).

  (也可用III.ii.23,来表示第三幕的第二场的第23行.)

  这里的括号夹注表示引文来自剧本第三幕第二场的21至23行。(注意标点的使用。)

  在引用诗歌时应标出引文的节、行,如:

  When Homer’s Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men “mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of evil” (10.209-11).

  这里的括号夹注表示引文来自诗歌第10节的209至211行。对不分节的诗第一次引用时应说明括号里标的是行数,使用“line”,以后的引用则不需再说明。例如:

  第一次引用:(lines 5-8)

  以后的引用:(12-13)

  在引用有章节、分册的小说的时候,应标出引文所在的页码、册数、章节,如:

  One of Kingsolver’s narrators, teenager Rachel, pushes her vocabulary beyond its limits. For example, Rachel complains that being forced to live in the Congo with her missionary family is “a sheer tapestry of justice” because her chances of finding a boyfriend are “dull and void” (117; bk. 2, ch. 10).

  例子里的括号夹注表示引文来自该书第二册第十章的第117页。(注意标点和缩略语的使用。)

  在引用《圣经》、《可兰经》等经典文献的时候,应标出引文的篇、章、节,如:

  Consider the words of Solomon: “If your enemies are hungry, give them food to eat. If they are thirsty, give them water to drink” (Bible, Prov. 25.21).

  例子里的括号夹注表示引文来自旧约《圣经》的《箴言》篇第25章第21节。《圣经》各篇的缩写有标准的写法,因而使用时应该注意核对。

  3.10 对引语文字的更改直接引语如出现在正文中间,使用引语的句子不得违反英语语法,不得出现“句中句”。为了使含直接引语的句子合乎语法,往往有必要对引语的文字作一定的更改。如果要删除引语中个别词句,可以用省略号(ellipses“…”)取代删除的词句。如果要加入或者更改个别单词或者词组,则可以将需要加入或者更改的单词或词组放在方括号(square brackets“[ ]”)以内。例如:

  删除词句:

  He stated, “The ‘placebo effect,’ … disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Smith 276), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.

  添加词组:

  Smith (276) found that “the placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [his own and others’] behaviors were studied in this manner.”

  — 无论删改还是添加字词均不得变更引语的原意。

  — 注意:如果删除是在句内,应该空一格以后再加省略号。如果删除是在一句整句以后,则应在该整句最后的标点(句号、问号或惊叹号)不空格直接加省略号。省略号应该用三个句点。

  3.11 引用网络和电子出版物引用网络文献和电子出版物时文中夹注的基本原则与引用其他文献时是基本一致的。

  引用网络和电子文献观点时有两种情况:

  3.11.1 一种是引用网络与电子文献的全文观点(或做整体描述),

  如果作者的姓氏或研究项目/主题网站的名称已在正文同一句中出现,按MLA的规范不需要使用括号夹注,如:

  William I. Mitchell’s City of Bits discusses architecture and urban life in the context of the digital telecommunications revolution.

  Victorian Women Writers Project has tried to develop a “historical sociology” of women’s writing in nineteenth-century England.

  The database Duecento is an invaluable source for texts of medieval Itanlian poetry.

  Romance Languages and Literature Home Page has links to many helpful resources.

  3.11.2 另一种情况是引用部分观点,如果作者的姓氏或研究项目/主题网站的名称在正文中没有出现,那么在括号夹注中需注明作者或项目名称,文章名称,段落。

  One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo is “…a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism” (Garcia, “Herzog: a Life,” par. 18). (其中“par.”指网页上的段落)

  Hypertext, as one theorist puts it, is “all about connection, linkage, and affiliation” (Moulthrop, “You Say,” par.19).

  如果作者姓氏已给出,则夹注中只标注所缺项目:

  “The debut of Julius Caesar,” according to Sohmer, “proclaimed Shakespeare’s Globe a theater of courage and ideas, a place where an audience must observe with the inner eye, listen with the inner ear” (par. 44).

  4. 脚注(footnotes)的使用在MLA的规范里,脚注只应在下列两种情况中考虑使用:

  (1) 提供有一定重要性、但写入正文将有损文本条理和逻辑的解释性信息;

  (2) 提供因篇幅过大不宜使用括号夹注注明的文献出处信息。

  5 参考文献著录的格式参考文献著录在MLA规范里叫做Works Cited。撰写论文时应仔细阅读MLA的规范手册,本节提供部分著录实例供参考。

  5.1 著录已出版的文章一位作者写的文章

  Most, Andrea. “ ‘We Know We Belong to the Land’: The Theatricality of Assimilation in Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Oklahoma!” PMLA 113 (1998): 77-89.

  两位作者写的文章

  White, Sabina, and Andrew Winzelberg. “Laughter and Stress.” Humor 5 (1992):343-55.

  两位以上的作者写的文章

  Mascia-Lees, Frances E., Pat Sharpe, and Colleen B. Cohen. “Double Liminality and the Black Woman Writer.” American Behavioral Scientist 31 (1987): 101-14.

  如果作者人数超过三人,也可以考虑仅保留第一作者的名字,加上et al.(拉丁文 “and others”),如:

  Mascia-Lees, Frances E., et al. “Double Liminality and the Black Woman Writer.” American Behavioral Scientist 31 (1987): 101-14.

  书评、影评、电视节目评论等(Review)

  Kidd, John. “The Scandal of Ulysses.” Rev. of Ulysses: The Corrected Text, by Hans Walter Gabler. New York Review of Books 30 June (1988): 32-39.

  收集在书籍中的文章(Selection from an edited book)

  Glover, David. “The Stuff That Dreams Are Made Of: Masculinity, Femininity, and the Thriller.” Gender, Genre and Narrative Pleasure. Ed. Derek Longhurst. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. 67-83.

  杂志中的文章

  Miller, Mark Crispen. “Massa, Come Home.” New Republic 16 Sept. 1981: 29-32.

  注意:著录引用杂志中的文章应标明杂志的出版日期。

  报纸中的文章

  Lohr, Steve. “Now Playing: Babes in Cyberspace.” New York Times 3 Apr. 1988: late ed.: C1+.

  “late ed.”指的是版本,“C+”指的是版面的位置。

  百科全书中的文章(An entry in an encyclopedia)

  Mohanty, Jitendra M. “Indian Philosophy.” The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987.

  政府文件(A government publication)

  United States. Natl. Council on Disability. Promises to Keep: A Decade of Federal Enforcement of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Washington: GPO, 2000.

  5.2 著录已出版的书籍一位作者写的书籍

  Graff, Gerald. Professing Literature: An Institutional History. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.

  新版书(Book with a new edition)

  Erikson, Erik. Childhood and Society. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1963.

  (2nd ed.)指的是版本,ed.小写

  团体作者(Book with a corporate author)写的书籍

  MLA:

  College Board. College-bound Seniors: 1989 SAT Profile. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1989.

  无作者书籍(Book with no author)

  Guidelines for the Workload of College English Teacher. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1987.

  编撰的书籍(Edited book)

  一位作者:

  Feldman, Paula R., ed. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

  两位作者:

  Kerckhove, Derrick de, and Charles J. Lumsden, eds. The Alphabet and the Brain: The Lateralization of Writing. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

  注意:一位编者用“ed.”, 两位或两位以上用“eds.”。

  翻译的书籍(Translated book)

  翻译的书籍应在书名后加上“Trans+译者名”,翻译者的名和姓不需要改变次序。

  Lacan, Jacques. Ecrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1977.

  重版书(Republished book)

  Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937. Urbana: U of

  5.3 著录尚未正式出版的文献硕博士论文(Dissertation)

  Hubert, Henry Allan. “The Development of English Studies in Nineteenth-Century Anglo- Canadian Colleges.” Diss. U of British Columbia, 1988.

  学术会议上的报告(Conference paper)

  Moffett, James. “Censorship and Spiritual Education.” The Right to Literacy Conference. Columbus, Ohio, September 1988.

  研究报告

  Flower, Linda. The Role of Task Representation in Reading to Write. Technical Report No. 6. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at U of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon U, 1987.

  小册子(A brochure)

  Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Dept. of Jury Commissioner. A Few Facts about Jury Duty. Boston: Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1997.

  5.4 著录非印刷材料5.4.1 电影或录像

  High Fidelity. Dir. Stephen Frears. Perf. John Cusack, Iben Hjejle, Jack Black, and Todd Louiso. 2000. Videocassette. Walt Disney Video, 2001.

  条目以影名开始(用斜体表示),继以导演的姓名(放在“Dir.”之后)和主要演员的姓名(放在“Perf.”之后),然后是发行者的名称和发行年份。如果是录像带或DVD,则应在发行者的名称前注明是“Videocassette”或“DVD”。

  5.4.2 假若著录非正式发行的电影或录像,则应报告收藏该电影或录像的地方,如:

  5.4.3 电视广播节目和系列报道(A Radio/Television Broadcast/Series)

  “Monkey Trial.” American Experience. PBS. WGBH, Boston. 18 Mar. 2003.

  5.4.4 电视系列报道分集(A Single Episode of a Television Series)

  Mysteries of the Pyramids. On the Inside. Discovery Channel. 7 Feb. 2001.

  (无论是MLA 还是APA的规范,分集的标题均不用斜体,也不用引号。)

  5.4.5. 音乐节目(A music recording)

  Bizet, Georges. Carmen. Perf. Jennifer Laramore, Thomas Moser, Angela Gheorghiu, and Samuel Ramey. Bavarian State Orch. and Chorus. Cond. Giuseppe Sinopoli. Warner, 1996.

  Chapman, Tracy. “Paper and Ink.” Telling Stories. Elektra, 2000.

  条目以作曲家、指挥、演奏者的姓名开始,如果作品较长,则继以作品名称(用斜体表示),再其他的演奏者和音乐家;如果作品是一首歌,则歌曲名称放在引号内,继以唱片或歌曲集的名称(用斜体表示)。最后是出版商和出版年份。

  本例中“Taupin”为演唱人,“(1975)”为版权获得日期,“Someone saved my life tonight”为歌名,“Elton John”为录制人,“On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy”为歌曲集的名称,“CD”表示该歌曲集为光碟。最后是出版地点和出版商。

  5.5 著录汉语著作和文章如果在英文撰写的论文中引用中文著作或者期刊,括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏(见第3.1.1节),相应的,参考文献著录的条目必须按作者姓氏汉语拼音的字母顺序与英文文献的条目一同排列。条目中凡正文中未加引用的内容均不必翻译。例如:

  Zhou, Xiaoyi. [周小仪],《唯美主义与消费文化》. 北京:北京大学出版社,2002.

  Zhou, Zuoren. [周作人], 《儿童文学小论中国新文学的源流》.石家庄:河北教育出版社.

  引用中文期刊文章,必须标明文章出现的页码。

  条目中的汉语不得使用斜体。

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